Working Mechanism of Synod Industrial Biogas Plant

Working Mechanism of Synod Industrial Biogas Plant: Detailed Explanation of the Biogas Production Process

Biogas plants, particularly those in the Synod industrial context, are integral to the sustainable management of organic waste and the generation of renewable energy. These plants operate through a complex yet efficient process that converts organic matter into biogas and digestate. Here’s a detailed explanation of the biogas production process within these plants.

1. Feedstock Collection and Preparation

The first step in the biogas production process is the collection and preparation of feedstock. Feedstock typically consists of various organic materials such as agricultural residues, animal manure, food waste, and even wastewater sludge. The choice of feedstock can significantly influence the efficiency and output of the biogas plant.

Once collected, the feedstock undergoes a pre-treatment process to enhance its suitability for anaerobic digestion. This may involve shredding or grinding to reduce particle size, increasing the surface area for microbial action. Additionally, the feedstock is often homogenized to ensure a consistent mixture, which aids in maintaining stable digestion conditions.

2. Anaerobic Digestion

The core of biogas production lies in the anaerobic digestion process, which occurs in large, airtight tanks known as digesters. Anaerobic digestion involves the breakdown of organic matter by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen. This process can be divided into four distinct stages:

a. Hydrolysis

In the hydrolysis stage, complex organic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are broken down into simpler soluble compounds by hydrolytic enzymes. For example, polysaccharides are converted into simple sugars, and proteins are broken down into amino acids.

b. Acidogenesis

Following hydrolysis, the soluble compounds are further degraded by acidogenic bacteria during the acidogenesis stage. This results in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), alcohols, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. The acidogenesis stage creates an acidic environment, which is crucial for the subsequent stages.

c. Acetogenesis

During acetogenesis, the volatile fatty acids and alcohols produced in the previous stage are converted into acetic acid, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide by acetogenic bacteria. This stage serves to reduce the concentration of VFAs, which can be inhibitory to methanogens in high concentrations.

d. Methanogenesis

The final stage, methanogenesis, involves the conversion of acetic acid, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide into methane and water by methanogenic archaea. Methane is the primary component of biogas, and this stage is critical for its production. The biogas generated in this stage typically consists of about 50-70% methane, with the remainder being primarily carbon dioxide and trace amounts of other gases.

3. Biogas Collection and Utilization

Once produced, biogas is collected and stored in gas holders. From here, it can be utilized in various ways depending on the plant’s design and operational goals. Common uses of biogas include:

  • Electricity Generation: Biogas can be used to fuel internal combustion engines or gas turbines, which drive generators to produce electricity. This electricity can be used on-site or fed into the grid.
  • Heat Production: The heat generated during electricity production can be captured and used for various thermal applications, such as space heating, water heating, or industrial processes.
  • Upgrading to Biomethane: Biogas can be upgraded to biomethane by removing impurities such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and moisture. The resulting biomethane has similar properties to natural gas and can be injected into the gas grid or used as vehicle fuel.

4. Digestate Management

The residue left after anaerobic digestion, known as digestate, is a nutrient-rich substance that can be used as a fertilizer or soil conditioner. Digestate management involves separating the solid and liquid fractions, often through mechanical separation processes such as centrifugation or screw pressing.

  • Solid Digestate: The solid fraction can be further processed, composted, or directly applied to fields as a soil amendment.
  • Liquid Digestate: The liquid fraction contains dissolved nutrients and can be used as a liquid fertilizer. It may undergo additional treatment to reduce its environmental impact before application.

5. Process Monitoring and Control

Effective operation of a Synod industrial biogas plant requires continuous monitoring and control to ensure optimal conditions for anaerobic digestion. Key parameters include temperature, pH, organic loading rate, and retention time. Advanced control systems and automation are often employed to maintain these parameters within the desired ranges, ensuring stable and efficient biogas production.


The working mechanism of Synod industrial biogas plant is a testament to the ingenuity of modern waste management and renewable energy production. By harnessing the natural process of anaerobic digestion, these plants convert organic waste into valuable biogas and digestate, contributing to sustainable development and environmental protection. Through careful management and optimization of each stage in the process, Synod industrial biogas plant exemplify the potential of biogas technology in addressing global energy and waste challenges.

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